Opportunities and Challenges for the 21st Century

Search for an Alternative Paradigm to address the Multi-dimensional Global Crisis

 International workshop organized by
the World Academy of Art and Science and the Library of Alexandria

Alexandria, Egypt  — June 5 & 6, 2013



Opportunities and Challenges for the 21st Century: Search For New Paradigm, Alexandria, June 2013

Concept of the Conference

The Issue

The world faces an unprecedented dilemma. Expanding opportunities are emerging side by side with intensifying problems. The proliferation of money, technology, education and global interdependence which have been the main drivers of global development is accompanied by rising levels of financial instability, pollution, unemployment, inequality, arms proliferation and social unrest. Humanity seems driven by mutually exclusive, contradictory goals leading to apparently insoluble problems. Piecemeal sectoral solutions are transparently inadequate.

The Question

Today, the world faces multiple crises of unprecedented scale and seriousness. These crises share common attributes. They all transcend narrow disciplinary boundaries, thus defying solution by partial, sectoral approaches. They are all global in nature and cannot be fully addressed without coordinated actions by the international community. Approaches to resolving the challenges are subject to conflicting claims, priorities and interests. The lack of significant progress on addressing these issues in recent years has raised doubts about the collective capacity of the human community to effectively address them. There is presently no consensus as to whether real, effective solutions are possible and what those solutions should be. Is there any way in which apparently mutually contradictory goals of prosperity, security, sustainability and social justice can all be realized?  

Trieste Meeting

Following up on recent articles on this topic in Cadmus Journal, an exploratory discussion was held on March 7 at Castle Duino near Trieste. Among many valuable insights, discussants identified as serious impediments the limitations imposed by the present social construction of knowledge, i.e. the way we perceive and frame the issues, and the tendency to examine complex interconnected issues as if they can be understood in isolation. Stress was placed on the need for new thinking and integrated, value-based theory in the social sciences. The obstacles posed by the current system of international institutions founded on the principle of national sovereignty, the absence of institutional mechanisms for humanity to exercise legitimate rights, and the gap between the rapid pace of technological change and the slower rate of cultural evolution were also emphasized. The increasing speed and reach of global communications, the shift in emphasis to Human Capital intensive development strategies, and the growing prominence of social networks were cited among a list of game-changing emerging trends.

Alexandria Event

As the next step in this process, the Library of Alexandria and the World Academy collaborated with a small group of like-minded organizations and individuals to identify the core elements of an integrated perspective, comprehensive strategy and detailed policy framework capable of addressing the multiple challenges through a more fundamental paradigm change.

The Alexandria workshop addressed the following broad issues:

  1. Common root causes of the multiple global crises
  2. Ideas, principles and values on which comprehensive solutions need to be based
  3. Strategies, policies, proposals, legal and institutional mechanisms
  4. Actionable steps

Search for an Alternative Paradigm to address the Multi-dimensional Global Crisis

 International workshop organized by
the World Academy of Art and Science and the Library of Alexandria

Alexandria, Egypt  — June 5 & 6, 2013

June 5, 2013
11:00 am – 1:00 pm Session 1: Introduction

Issue: Is there any way in which humanity can realize the apparently conflicting goals of prosperity, security, sustainability and social justice?


  • Characteristics of major global challenges and opportunities, stressing their interdependence and global linkages.
  • Historical perspective reflecting the progress made so far and the need to move beyond the present short-term, sectoral, nation-centric approach
  • Goals and issues that need to be answered by a new paradigm for global development.


  • Ismail Seregeldin, President, Library of Alexandria
  • Garry Jacobs, Chairman of the Board & CEO, WAAS
  • Brief introductory remarks by the participants
1:00 pm – 2:15 pm
2:15 pm – 3:45 pm Session 2: Economy & Employment

Issues: How can global food security, full employment and abolition of poverty be achieved within a decade? How can the necessary financial resources be generated and mobilized to achieve the goals of global development?


  • Major challenges for achieving global prosperity
  • Strategies for global full employment
  • Need for new economic theory
  • International financial system – criteria for an equitable global financial system
  • Strategies to meet the global food challenge
  • Social welfare in a counter-aging society

Moderator: Garry Jacobs

Report on Geneva conference

3:45 pm – 4:15 pm Coffee Break
4:15 pm – 6:00 pm Session 3: Energy & Ecology

Issue: How can global living standards be raised to middle class levels without depleting or destroying the environment or depriving future generations of the capacity to sustain these achievements?


  • Major challenges for achieving sustainable development
  • Sustainable strategies to meet global energy needs
  • Equitable strategies for managing global resources
  • The future of water – strategies to meet the challenge
  • Reconciling global prosperity with long term sustainability

Moderator: Jakob Von Uexkull, President, World Futures Council, WAAS Fellow

Report on Geneva conference – Alexander Likhotal, President, Green Cross International

6:00 pm Departure to Hotel
June 6, 2013
9:00 am –10:45 am Session 4: Human Capital

Issue: How can humanity fully tap the potential of a human-capital and social-capital based strategy for global development?


  • Major challenges and opportunities for development of human capital
  • Strategy for universal primary & secondary education
  • World University: global strategy for higher education
  • The power of networks as social capital
  • Organizing science & technology for global development
  • Global strategy for a healthy humanity

Moderator: Dr. Aly Eldean Hilal, Professor of Political Sciences, Cairo University

Report on Geneva conference – Heitor Gurgulino de Souza, Member, WAAS Board of Trustees and former Rector, UN University

11:15 am – 1:00 pm Session 5: Governance & International Security

Issues: How can we evolve a global cooperative security system that permanently eliminates war and the threats posed by WMD? How can we design and implement system of global governance capable of implementing necessary measures to achieve the other five goals for the welfare and well-being of all?


  • Challenges of global governance
  • Democratization of global institutions
  • Evolution of global rule of law
  • From competitive to cooperative security
  • Disarmament

Moderator: Mutaz Qafisheh, Professor of Law, the Hebron University, Palestine, Israel and WAAS Fellow

Report on Geneva conference – Winston Nagan, Professor of Law, University of Florida, & Member, WAAS Board of Trustees

1:00 pm – 2:15 pm Lunch
2:15 pm – 3:45 pm
Session 6: Elements of a New Paradigm

Issue: On what essential ideas, principles, values, strategies, policies, and institutional mechanisms should the new global paradigm be founded?


  • Values & Principles for a new paradigm
  • Institutional Mechanism
  • Next steps

Moderators: Ismail Seregeldin & Garry Jacobs


  • Saad El Din Ibrahim, Professor of Sociology at the American University in Cairo and a prominent human rights activist in Egypt
  • Jakob von Uexkull
3:45 pm – 5:30 pm
Closing session followed by a Coffee Break

Opportunities and Challenges for the 21st Century: Search For New Paradigm, Alexandria, June 2013

Conference Participants


Agni Vlavianos-Arvanitis

Agni Vlavianos-Arvanitis is a Visiting Professor of Bioethics at Panteion University, Athens, Fellow of the World Academy of Art and Science, Honorary Professor of St. Petersburg State Technological University for Plant Polymers, Active Member of the The Club of Rome, Founder and President of the Hellenic Chapter of the Club of Rome, Founding Member of the Middle East Division of Learning Without Borders, Member of the Hellenic National Commission for UNESCO, the Balkan Political Club, the Brussels-EU Chapter of the Club of Rome, the International Bioethics Society etc. She is also Commissioner on The Global Commission to Fund the United Nations, Founding Member of the Balkan Academy of Sciences, New Culture and Sustainable Development and Co-Founder of the International Science Foundation, Scholarship Trustee for the Hellenic Canadian Association. She has also served as Vice-President of the International Bioethics Society, Honorary President of the Association Members and Coordinator for the Mediterranean Region of the “Life in Space” project, and Vice President of the UNESCO-MAB Hellenic National Committee. She is a graduate of Columbia University’s Barnard College (B.A.), New York University (M.S.) and the University of Athens (Ph.D.)

Heitor Gurgulino de Souza

Heitor Gurgulino de Souza, currently President of the Brazilian Chapter of the Club of Rome and a member of the Board of Trustees of the World Academy of Art and Science, recently retired as Vice President of the Club. Prof. Gurgulino de Souza was appointed to the Council of the United Nations University (UNU) in 1986 and was selected by the UN Secretary General as UNU’s Rector the following year. He served in Japan (1987-1991 and 1992-1997) in the truly global and interdisciplinary University, was a Special Advisor to the Director General of UNESCO (1988-1989) and Vice-Rector of UNILEGIS, of Brazil’s Federal Senate. He worked for 16 years as Rector of the Federal University of São Carlos, S. Paulo, and as Director of the Department of University Affairs in the Ministry of Education, Director of the National Research Council (CNPq) and, by Presidential appointment, was a Member of the Federal Council of Education, both in Brasilia. Earlier he was Professor Emeritus of Physics at the State University of São Paulo, Brazil, and conducted research work in the Department of Physics at the Universities of Kansas (USA) and S. Paulo, and worked in the Department of Scientific Affairs at the Organization of American States in Washington, DC (USA) and helped set-up its large Regional Programs of Science and Technology.

Gerald Gutenschwager

Gerald Gutenschwager, Professor Emeritus, School of Architecture, Washington University in St. Louis, MO, USA; Scientific Fellow, Department of Regional Planning and Development, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece. Formal education and experience have focused on research, education and administration in relation to planning, international development, urbanization, and health. These concerns have prompted investigations and experiments in social theory,planning theory, educational gaming and simulation, social change, time budgets, the political economy of health and the philosophy of social science.Additional research has focused on modernism and postmodernism as expressed in social theory, urbanism and architecture. Practical work experience has ranged from a city planning department in the U.S. (Chicago) to an extensive tenure with public and private agencies and offices overseas in Athens, Greece.Teaching experience has ranged from junior high to graduate school and with students from all of the continents over a sixty year period since the 1950s. Publications include numerous articles, reviews and presentations, as well as two books: The Political Economy of Health in Modern Greece (1989), Athens, Greece: The National Center of Social Research (in Greek), and Planning and Social Science; a Humanistic Approach (2004). Lanham, MD: University Press of America, also published in Greek by The University of Thessaly Publications, Volos, Greece.

Robert Horn

Robert Horn is a Visiting Scholar at Stanford University. Robert Horn, who was originally trained as a political scientist, has a special interest in public policy strategy, organisational learning, and knowledge management, and art.  He founded and was, for 20 years, CEO of an international consulting company, Information Mapping, Inc.

Today, he concentrates on “Social Messes” (aka “Wicked Problems”). He pioneered dealing with such messes through interactive visual analyses with task group workshops using large, visual “Info-Murals” on such issues as global climate-change, energy security, nuclear-waste-disposal, NASA’s research, and mega-flu pandemic.

Horn is a visiting scholar at Stanford University’s Human Science and Technology Advanced Research Institute (H-STAR), and has taught at Harvard and Columbia and consulted for clients such as Boeing, Dupont, AT&T, HP and other Global 1,000 companies as well as the British Foreign Office and the UK nuclear waste disposal agency.  He is a member of Global Business Network and a fellow of the World Academy of Arts and Sciences and the International Futures Forum. He has received lifetime achievement awards from two international research organizations.

He is also the initial explorer of the semantics of putting words and visual images together in his book, Visual Language: Global Communications for the 21st Century.

Garry Jacobs

Garry Jacobs is Chairman of the Board of Trustees, World Academy of Art & Science; Managing Editor of Cadmus Journal; and Vice-President, The Mother’s Service Society, a social science research institute based in India. Earlier, Mr. Jacobs served as Executive Director and Member Secretary of the International Commission on Peace & Food. He is a researcher, author and consultant on the process of economic and social development as well as a management consultant to firms in a wide range of industries in the USA, Europe and India on strategies to elevate corporate values, accelerate growth, and improve profitability. He is co-author of several books and more than 100 articles on the process of corporate growth, economic and social development, psychology, peace, security and international affairs. Mr. Jacobs was elected to the Academy in 1995 and has also served as the chairman of the Strategic Planning Committee and chairman of the Committee on Peace & Development.

Alexander Likhotal

Alexander Likhotal  is the President of Green Cross International. He holds doctorates in Political Science from the Moscow State Institute for International Relations (1975) and in History from the Institute of World Economy and International Relations, USSR Academy of Sciences (1987). In addition to an academic career as a Professor of Political Science and International Relations, he served as a European Security analyst for the Soviet Union leadership. In 1991, he was appointed Deputy Spokesman and Advisor to the President of the USSR, Mikhail Gorbachev. After Mr. Gorbachev’s resignation, Professor Likhotal served as his advisor and spokesman and worked at the Gorbachev Foundation as the International and Media Director. Having joined Green Cross International in 1996, he is actively involved in furthering sustainable development agenda.

Winston Nagan

Winston Nagan is the Sam T. Dell Research Scholar Professor of Law, University of Florida, Levin College of Law, Gainesville, Florida, Founding Director, Institute for Human Rights, Peace and Development and Fellow, Royal Society of the Arts. Prof. Nagan is a member of the Board of Trustees of the World Academy of Art and Science and the Editor-in-Chief of Eruditio Journal, an e-journal published by the Academy. A member of the Editorial Board of Cadmus Journal, Winston Nagan is also the International Editorial Advisor for the Journal of Law and Politics. He served as Chairman of Amnesty International USA (1989-91) and as a member of the Board (1986-92). He also served as President of Policy Sciences Center, Yale Law School (1986-1991) and on numerous groups of international experts on issues related to human rights, biodiversity, indigenous rights, and traditional knowledge. Winston Nagan is an alumnus of the University of South Africa, where he did his B.A (Law), Brasenose college, Oxford, where he got an M.A (Juris), Duke School of Law where he did LL.M. and later Yale School of Law, where he obtained his Doctorate degree in law.

Ruben Nelson

Ruben F. W. Nelson is Executive Director of Foresight Canada – a Canadian not-for-profit dedicated to nurturing the practice of the next generation of strategic foresight at a high professional level. He is Canada’s most experienced teacher and practitioner of strategic foresight and futures research. In 1960, he Co-Chaired what may have been the first formal futures conference in Canada. In 1976, he was one of the founders of the Canadian Association of Futures Studies, and subsequently its third President. He has served as Treasurer and a member of the Executive Board of the World Futures Studies Federation. His primary research interest is in the long evolution of human consciousness, cultures and civilizations. He is particularly interested in the emergence, flowering, decline and transformation of the modern/Industrial form of civilization and the possibility of the emergence of a truly post- modern/Industrial form of civilization. His formal training is in philosophy, political theory and theology.

Ljudmila Popovic

Mila Popovich is a young scholar associated with the University of Colorado at Boulder, whose doctoral work focuses on the issues of woman’s migrations and subjectivity within globalization processes. She is a Junior Fellow at the World Academy of Art and Science, where she serves on board of the Membership Communications Committee. She is an Associate Expert on Gender Issues and Humanities within the Seventh Research Framework Programme at the European Commission. Additionally, Popovich is an Associate Editor for the “International Journal of the Humanities,” and a member of the Editorial Board of the “Journal of Women’s Entrepreneurship and Education,” of the Institute of Economic Sciences, Belgrade. Equally invested in the critical work as well as creative, she has published on a range of interdisciplinary topics such as international cinema, nationalism and women’s issues, new economic paradigm and global crisis. On the creative side, she has been publishing poetry both in her native Montenegro and in the U.S., as well as performing as an international dance artist. As an activist, Popovich is engaged in the environmental and women’s issues in her resident community of Denver, Colorado.

Mutaz Qafisheh

Mutaz M. Qafisheh is a Professor of International Law and Legal Clinic Director, Hebron University, Palestine. He holds a PhD in International Law, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva. He is a practising international lawyer, advising a number of international organizations, including the UN and the PLO. He has formerly worked as Human Rights Officer, UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in Geneva, Beirut and Ramallah; Regional Director, Penal Reform International, Middle East and North Africa, Amman; Director, Security Sector Reform, Birzeit University; Director, Legal Education, Palestinian Law Schools, Jerusalem; Legal Advisor, Palestinian Parliament; Co-Founder, Human Rights Program, Al-Quds-Bard Honors College, Jerusalem and New York. His twenty-five studies include: Palestine Membership in the United Nations: Legal and Practical Implications (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars, 2013); The International Law Foundations of Palestinian Nationality (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2008); ‘Article 1D: Definition of the Term ‘Refugee,’’ in A. Zimmermann, ed., The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol: A Commentary (Oxford 2011); ‘The Dilemma of Legislative Reform in Line with International Standards on Gender Equality in the Islamic World: The Case of Palestine’, International Journal for Legislative Drafting and Law Reform  (London 2013); ‘The Ability of the Palestinian Legal System to Secure Adequate Standards of Living: Reform or Failed State Duty,’ Asian Journal of International Law (Cambridge 2013).

Ismail Serageldin

Ismail Serageldin is the Director of Library of Alexandria, and also chairs the Board of Directors for each of the Library’s affiliated research institutes and museums. He serves as Chair and Member of a number of advisory committees for academic, research, scientific and international institutions and civil society efforts which includes the Institut d’Egypte (Egyptian Academy of Science), US National Academy of Sciences (Public Welfare Medalist), the American Philosophical Society, TWAS (Academy of Sciences for the Developing World), the Indian National Academy of Agricultural Sciences and the European Academy of Sciences and Arts. He is former Chairman, Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR, 1994-2000), Founder and former Chairman, the Global Water Partnership (GWP, 1996-2000) and the Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest (CGAP), a microfinance program (1995-2000) and was Professor of the International Chair Savoirs contre pauvreté (Knowledge Against Poverty), at Collège de France, Paris, and Distinguished Professor at Wageningen University in the Netherlands. Dr.Serageldin has also served in a number of capacities at the World Bank, including as Vice President for Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development (1992-1998), and for Special Programs (1998-2000). He has published over 60 books and monographs and over 200 papers on a variety of topics including biotechnology, rural development, sustainability, and the value of science to society.

Jakob von Uexkull

Jakob  von Uexkull is a Fellow, World Academy of Art & Science; Chair, World Future Council. He is the founder (1980) of the Right Livelihood Award, often referred to as the ‘Alternative Nobel Prize’. He is a co-founder (1984) of The Other Economic Summit and a past Member of the European Parliament (1987-9) where he served on the Political Affairs Committee. He is a patron of Friends of the Earth International and a member of the Global Commission to Fund the United Nations. He served on the UNESCO Commission on Human Duties and Responsibilities (1998-2000). He has also served on the Board of Greenpeace, Germany, and on the Council of Governance of Transparency International. He lectures widely on environment, justice and peace issues. He is also a recognised philatelic expert with publications including ‘The Early Postal History of Saudi Arabia’ (London, 2001).


 Aly Eldean Hilal

Professor of Political Sciences, Cairo University, Ex-member of the Shoura Council. He chaired the Political Science Committee of the Supreme Council of Culture, member of the board of Directors, the National Center for Social Studies and editor in chief of the quarterly journal Al Nahda (Renaissance). He served as Egypt’s Minister of Youth (1999-2004), Dean of the Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Cairo University (1993-1999) and Director of the Center of Political Studies and Research at Cairo University (1986-1993). He was a member of: the UN Special Experts Group on Disarmament and Development (1979-1980), the ACLS/SSRC committee on the comparative study of Moslem Societies (1988-1991), Council of the International Institute for Strategic Studies, IISS (London) for nine years (1983-1992) the UN Expert group on the Economic Aspects of Disarmament and the UN Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDER) (1991-1992). He was a visiting professor at the American University in Cairo, Calgary Univ., Univ. of California at Los Angeles, and Princeton Univ. His publications in English include: Islam and Power, Egypt and the great powers, Islamic Resurgence in the Arab World, The future of the Arab Nation, Egypt’s Economic Potential, and Foreign Policies of the Arab States.

 Saad Eddin Ibrahim

Saad Eddin Ibrahim is a Professor of Sociology at the American University in Cairo and a prominent human rights activist in Egypt. Ibrahim founded the Ibn Khaldun Center for Development Studies in Cairo and the Arab Organization for Human Rights. He has been criticized for accepting international funds to promote civil society and election monitoring in Egypt, and for suggesting that the United States should condition its aid to Egypt on improvements in the country’s human rights record. Ibrahim is currently working with the Arab Democracy Foundation in Doha to promote philanthropy and Arab investment in development. In this interview, Ibrahim speaks about his involvement in the promotion of human rights and civil liberties in Egypt. He also shares how Islam has impacted his work and the work of others in human rights development.

 Nadine Mourad Sika

Nadine Mourad Sika is an assistant professor of political science at The American University in Cairo, Egypt. Before joining AUC, she was visiting scholar at the Political Science Institute of the University of Tübingen in Germany and assistant professor of political science at the Future University in Egypt. She is currently consultant to the UNDP; a member of the Board of Directors of Partners in Development, an independent Egyptian think tank; and a contributing author to International Democracy Watch’s “First International Democracy Report” in 2011. Dr. Sika received a Ph.D. in comparative politics from the University of Cairo.

Opportunities and Challenges for the 21st Century: Search For New Paradigm, Alexandria, June 2013

Ideas, Principles & Values for a New Paradigm

This report presents ideas discussed at the WAAS international conference at UN in Geneva and the Library of Alexandria workshop in June 2013. They represent an initial, incomplete set of guidelines for evolving a new global paradigm to address the multiple challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. This document is intended to serve as a basis and stimulus for further discussion.

Core Concepts

  1. Framework: The need for a new paradigm has been clearly established and much work has been done on individual components of it, but the world today is a very complex organism consisting of many interdependent subsystems which are undergoing rapid change. For this reason formulation of a comprehensive, integrated global perspective will be extremely challenging. Nevertheless, it may be possible to identify a set of fundamental ideas, principles and values that will provide a sound foundation and framework for a new paradigm.
  2. Power of Ideas: Ideas have immense power to change the world. The new paradigm will derive its power from the ideas and values on which it is based.  “No one can defeat an idea whose time has come”.
  3. Four-dimensional Mosaic: The new paradigm can be conceived as a mosaic encompassing movement in four dimensions –
    • From uni-sectoral to comprehensive, integrated
    • Scale  from local to global
    • From static to dynamic
    • Conceptual to analytical
  4. Competition of paradigms: We need to understand how paradigms emerge, persist and decline. A new paradigm must demonstrate its capacity to address the negative consequences of the existing paradigm and provide a better alternative.
  5. Concept of Society: Society is much more than a combination of individuals. Society encompasses the relationships between people, organizations, institutions, systems and cultural values which support human activities, interactions and cooperative endeavor. A new paradigm must encompass all dimensions of society, rather than confine itself to the sphere of economy or technology.
  6. Individual and the Collective: A new paradigm needs to arrive at a more effective reconciliation of individual freedom with social equality, the rights of the individual and the rights of the collective.
  7. Human Choice: Social science is the science of conscious humanity, not a science of inanimate physical nature. The principles governing society and social science are not determined by immutable and eternal laws of nature. They are created by human beings and based on human values and choices that can be altered.
  8. Instruments of Development: Humanity has the tendency to develop marvelous instruments and then become subservient and enslaved to the tools fashioned to serve us. Human welfare and well-being must be given precedence over the compulsion of our social organizations, institutions and instruments.
  9. Rationality: Our problems are the result of clinging to naïve assumptions, wishful thinking, invalid or outmoded concepts, entrenched interest and common superstitions, such as blind faith in technological progress or the wisdom of the unregulated marketplace. Solutions will become evident when we insist on a rational approach.
  10. Values: Values are not merely utopian ideals. Values represent the essence of knowledge and wisdom acquired by humanity over millennia regarding the fundamental principles for human survival, growth, development and evolution. A paradigm based on universal values will be ultimately the most practical and sustainable.


  1. Trans-disciplinary Science of Society: Economy is a subset of society and inseparable from the political, social, ecological, technological and cultural context and needs to reflect their true contribution to society and human welfare. Economic activity always occurs within a political policy framework and impacted by prevailing policy, laws and values. A broader and more trans-disciplinary understanding of economics is needed which also integrates knowledge from the natural sciences and opportunities from the engineering sciences.
  2. Paradox of Needs and Capabilities: The world today confronts a paradox of enormous unmet human needs coupled with a vast reservoir of underutilized recourses – human, financial, organizational, technological – capable of meeting those needs. The existence of this paradox reflects fundamental deficiencies in economic theory and public policy.
  3. Regulation: The free (unregulated) market is only a concept. All economy is political economy. Regulation is essential for freedom. Regulation must reflect the values of the new paradigm.
  4. Efficiency: The economic concept of efficiency is confined to maximizing return on capital and other resources, irrespective of its impact on human welfare. A wider social concept of efficiency is needed to reflect the real social costs and benefits of economic activity, including its impact on peace, human welfare and well-being and the environment.
  5. Financial Markets: Financial markets were developed as a mechanism for accumulating capital to meet the growing needs of the real economy, not as an end in themselves. Today financial markets are increasingly divorced from the real economy and need to be realigned to serve their essential social purpose. Financial transactions need to be regulated and taxed in a manner that protects and promotes the real economy.
  6. Money: Money is not a thing. It is a social organization backed by the accumulated wealth and future productive capacities of society. Money creation should be directed to meeting human and social needs rather than supporting speculative investment. Money created for investment in human capital and other productive capabilities is an essential catalyst for social development.
  7. Technology: Like money, technology is not an end in itself but an instrument which should only be utilized in a manner and measure that it promotes human welfare and well-being.
  8. Tax Bias: Current fiscal policies that incentivize capital investment while taxing labor promote investment in technology at the expense of human beings and depletion of natural capital. Taxes and subsidies should promote what we want more of, not vice versa.
  9. Sustainability: The concept of sustainability should reflect the opportunities for future generations as expressed in terms of total capital per person — natural, man-made, human and social.
  10. Freedom vs. License: Freedom and responsibility are inseparable. Unbridled pursuit of personal selfish gain is incompatible with extension of freedom to all. The right to development by individual pursuit has to be balanced by the right of the collective for equitable distribution of benefits.
  11. Measurement: Quantification is a powerful and essential tool for social progress. But in practice we get what we measure, not necessarily what we really need. The quality of our measures determines the quality of results. The current system of national accounts fails to distinguish between positive and negative economic activity and fails to measure net impact on national wealth. National accounts need to reflect stock as well as flow, distinguish negative from positive contributions, and fully reflect contributions to long term viability.
  12. Prices should reflect true costs: Economic values must reflect the real value of natural resources, the real cost of various energy sources, and the social costs of unemployment. Pricing water and other resources based on the cost of extraction rather than their replacement costs grossly distorts decision-making. Failing to take into account the real risks and insurance costs for nuclear power distorts the relative cost of alternative forms of renewable energy. Neglecting the impact of unemployment on public health, crime rates, social stability and drug use distorts assessment of the relative value of capital and labor.
  13. Right to Employment: Employment in a market economy is the economic equivalent of the right to vote in democracy. It is the minimum condition for economic freedom and human welfare. The present system which supports that right to unbridled speculation, even when it undermines the real economy and employment, is incompatible with human welfare and social justice for all. Employment needs to be recognized as a fundamental human right.
  14. Full employment: Full employment is an achievable goal. Ample scope exists for rectifying the implicit biases in the present system that favor capital and technology over labor and accumulation of wealth over fair distribution of income and the proceeds of production. Higher education and vocational training must be made affordable and accessible to all.
  15. Policy counts: Better policies can enhance living standards and quality of life independent of rising levels of income. Policy should be based on sustainable development indicators.

Energy & Ecology

  1. Anthropocene: Human beings are the most powerful geological force impacting the planet and biosphere. Consequently, we have a special responsibility to ensure that our actions are compatible with the protection and progressive enrichment of the earth’s biosphere. The science of Economics must evolve to fully reflect the costs and measure the contribution of all human activity to our natural capital base.
  2. Decoupling Consumption vs. Well-being:  Global development strategy must be compatible with the fullest attainment of both advanced and developing nations. Human welfare and well-being have to be decoupled from unbridled consumption of the earth’s finite resources, as pollution has been largely decoupled from industrial development in technologically advanced nations.
  3. Resource Efficiency: Radical improvements in resource efficiency are available and can lead to a massive decoupling of resource consumption from economic activity.
  4. Ecological Development Models: Dynamic development models should explicitly incorporate climate challenges, ecological footprints, ecosystem services, and the concept of planetary boundaries.
  5. Incentives & Subsidies:  Incentives for sustainable consumption and production should be designed, e.g. by reducing or removing ecologically destructive subsidies. 
  6. Public Goods: The real impact of economic activity on public good needs to be assessed and reflected in pricing and taxation.
  7. Energy: Energy strategy should seek to maximize energy efficiency while minimizing energy consumption in a manner compatible with economic prosperity for all. Decoupling growth and resource consumption is an essential but not a sufficient strategy.
  8. Circular Economy: Policy and incentives should be introduced to make recycling of natural resources the norm in every sector.

Human Capital

  1. Human Resourcefulness: Anything becomes a resource only when human beings recognize it as such. Material resources are finite, but the potential development of human capacities is unlimited. A human-centered paradigm must be directed to maximize human welfare, not growth, and to place maximum emphasis on the full development of human capacities and social opportunities – human and social capital.
  2. Human Capital: The bias toward capital and technology should be replaced by recognition that human beings are the source of all productivity, innovation and creativity.  Investment, taxes and subsidies patterns should reflect the relative importance of human capital in development.
  3. Individuality: Society can only reach its full potential by fostering the full development of each and all of its individual members. The individual is the catalyst for social change. The new paradigm should secure the rights and promote the fullest possible development of the unique capabilities of each individual in a manner compatible with the full development of others.
  4. Education: Education is the prime instrument of conscious social evolution. Raising levels of education is essential for promoting peace, democracy, employment, economic development and cultural symbiosis. Expenditure on education should be recognized as an investment in human capital. Quality, type and content of education need to be oriented to meet emerging needs and opportunities.

Governance & Security

  1. Basis of law: Law derives its legitimacy from the will of the people and emerges by a social process, not merely by past precedent, legislative process or the arbitrary acts of states.
  2. Leadership: What the world needs now is good governance systems rather than strong leaders. Global leadership needs to be replaced by the evolution of international rule of law.
  3. Democracy: Democracy must evolve from plutocracy, competition between elites and corruption into a truly representative participatory system based on human values and promoting human security.
  4. International law: Principles of democracy must be extended to international institutions – globalize democracy. Sovereignty and international law are the result of a global constitutional process which must be expanded to include the role of the individual as a subject and not merely an object. The notion of law cannot be divorced from the notion of justice.
  5. Concept of Sovereignty: National sovereignty is a leaking ship. The basis for national sovereignty is inseparable from the rights of its citizens. The concept of sovereignty needs to must be broadened to take into account the rights of the human collective and its individual members. The authority foundations of the UN Charter should be expanded to clearly reflect the sovereign rights of individual human beings and humanity as a whole.
  6. Concept of Security: The concept of security needs to encompass political, social, ecological, cultural and psychological dimensions. Ideas and policy security should evolve from maximizing national security to maximizing human security.
  7. Cooperative Security: The prevailing security paradigm fosters competition between states in a manner that each nation’s efforts to enhance its own security are perceived as threats by other states leading to perpetual escalation. Global security must move from an exclusive  competitive paradigm to an inclusive cooperative paradigm.
  8. Nuclear Weapons: Weapons of mass destruction designed to wipe out large civilian populations, endanger future generations, and reek widespread, lasting damage to the environment are totally incompatible with the fundamental rights of humanity. The use, threat of use or possession of nuclear weapons should be declared a crime against humanity.
  9. Global Society: The whole is more than the sum of its parts. Humanity is more than a collection of nation-states. Governance needs to evolve to reflect the will of humanity as a whole.
  10. Global referendum: Mechanisms need to be developed to assess the will of humanity and allow it an effective role in global decision-making.

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