WORLD FEDERATION OF UNITED NATIONS ASSOCIATIONS FEDERATION MONDIALE DES ASSOCIATIONS POUR LES NATIONS UNIES
A peoples’ movement for the United Nations
STUDENTS FOR A NUCLEAR WEAPONS-FREE WORLD CONFERENCE
13-16 July 2008, Geneva
The Students for a Nuclear Weapons-Free World Conference was held from 13-16 July 2008 at the Palais des Nations in Geneva. The conference, which brought together the winning students of a global essay, video, and poster competition to work together on the question of how to free the world of nuclear weapons, was organized by the World Federation of United Nations Associations in collaboration with the World Academy of Art and Science.
The fifteen winning students came from Afghanistan, Australia, Belgium, China, Colombia, Jamaica, Malaysia, New Zealand, Nigeria, Russia, Singapore, Slovenia and USA. The final selection was made by a committee chaired by the Hon. Douglas Roche, on the recommendation of the NGO Committees on Disarmament in New York and Geneva.
The goal of the conference was to create a dialogue among the students, disarmament and security experts from international organizations, member states, NGOs and academia, as well as to define communication and outreach strategies.
At their own initiative, a group of students from Germany participated in the program of activities and filmed the proceedings. A short video was shown on Youtube and the final documentary will be made available shortly on www.disarmamenthub.org.
The list of the names of all the students and a photo gallery of the conference is attached.
The Ambassadors of Belgium and Sweden hosted luncheons for the students and WFUNA staff. The welcome reception took place on Sunday, 13 July 2008, at the John Knox Centre in Geneva.
Ms. Pera Wells, Secretary-General of the World Federation of United Nations Associations (WFUNA), and Mr. John Cox, Member of the Board of Directors of the World Academy of Art and Science, (WAAS) welcomed the winners of the competition and all other participants to the conference.
Monday 14 July
The Conference was opened by Dr. Hans Blix, the President of WFUNA.
Dr. Hans Blix shared recollections of his first international seminar, which was held by WFUNA in Geneva, in 1950. Dr. Blix pointed to the crucial role of students, advising them to make good use of time, and start with learning as many things as possible. He spoke of constructing a “Map of the World”, a map not merely of geography, but also of history and sociology.
Dr. Blix then presented an overview of the Students for a Nuclear Weapons-Free World competition which had invited students from all over the world to produce a an essay, a video or a poster–answering the question “What do you think can lead governments to stay away from, or do away with, nuclear weapons?” Over 240 submissions were received from 49 countries.
Dr. Blix introduced Mr. John Cox and Mr. Robert Berg, trustees of the World Academy of Arts and Science (WAAS). The organisation was founded by leading scientists and intellectuals such as Albert Einstein, Robert Oppenheimer and Bertrand Russell, and was the principal co-sponsor of the conference.
The statement by H.E. Sergei Ordzhonikidze, Director-General of the Palais des Nations, delivered by Tim Caughley, Director of the ODA in Geneva, highlighted the importance of the UN’s work on disarmament. He said that the Conference on Disarmament (CD) is the centrepiece of the disarmament machinery. It is the sole multilateral disarmament negotiating body in the world and has produced major multilateral agreements, such as the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention and the Chemical Weapons Convention. Although the CD has been unable to pursue negotiations due to differences between its members in the past decade, this impasse stands in contrast to a new intensity in international concern over nuclear disarmament. Numerous initiatives, including the report by the Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission, have come from outside the UN, and it is hoped that they will lead to a revitalization of efforts towards a nuclear weapons-free world.
A video-recorded message from H. E. Mr Sergio Duarte, the UN High Representative for Disarmament, was shown. Mr. Duarte congratulated the students, emphasised the importance of the educational approach, and stated that participation from forty-nine countries shows that the nuclear disarmament issue is in the hearts and minds of the people around the globe.
Dialogue between Dr Blix and the students
Dr. Blix stated that the issue of nuclear disarmament could be approached from several different perspectives:
- Procedural questions, including campaign strategies;
- Study programs or seminars on the issue of nuclear disarmament;
- Policies that address the various dimensions of nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament.
Dr. Blix noted that apart from climate change, there are other “inconvenient truths” in the daily lives of people around the globe which include poverty, the violation of human rights, and the food crisis. However, a nuclear weapons-free world is first in the list of “inconvenient truths” that must be resolved. The best way to do away with nuclear weapons is to make governments feel that they do not need them.
Students offered different perspectives on the question of how to achieve a nuclear weapons-free world. Nicolas Forero Villareal (Colombia), presented his video “Power of the People.” He proposed to create a program to make younger generations active participants in the disarmament process, citing the Colombian initiative, “Voluntary Disarmament in the Streets” as a successful example of a people’s movement for disarmament that is already taking place. Rushaine Cunningham (Jamaica) stated that the collaboration of many different countries was necessary for the realization of a nuclear weapons-free world. Emily Gleason (USA) considered that it is useful to focus on the positives when discussing nuclear disarmament, and that such an approach will help to develop a clear message that is fresh and viable. Wilson Chau (New Zealand) explained that people interpret the idea of security differently. Governments will remain blind towards nuclear disarmament unless “security” is redefined.
Catriona Standfield (Australia) and Pin Quan Ng (Singapore) spoke on effective communication, especially in the context of the interaction between politicians and civil society. Sven Sobrie (Belgium) was interested in legal aspects of nuclear disarmament stating that treaties are important but currently insufficient and should go further to establish the principle that any breach of the NPT is a breach of a peremptory norm. Brian Chan (Malaysia) presented a video he had produced. He noted that many young people today are apathetic on this issue and that it is important to provide information, and the right amount, neither too much nor too little to encourage people to pressure governments to make changes. The UN is an appropriate starting point, as every country is treated as an equal at the UN. Diana Rozhnova (Russia) said that society itself helped shape the idea that only states with nuclear weapons can be “super” powerful. This approach must be changed by involving the people in disarmament processes.
Vision of the World Academy of Art and Science (WAAS) for a Nuclear Weapons-Free World: Recalling the Concerns and Hopes of Einstein, Oppenheimer and Russell
Mr. Robert Berg, Member of the Board of Directors, WAAS
Mr. Berg provided an introduction to the World Academy of Art and Science, which came about in 1960 at the urging of Albert Einstein. The Academy today is composed of about 600 members from all disciplines. Since 1964, the WAAS has been actively engaged in conflict resolution, peacebuilding and nuclear disarmament.
There are many aspects of disarmament that need to be pursued: increasing safety, space weaponization, and cutting down massive nuclear forces to minimal nuclear deterrence, and total elimination. Nuclear disarmament is too important to have all the big issues in one negotiating basket and therefore multiple approaches must be developed.
There are promising roles for non-nuclear states which should be explored and expanded. Development of new non-nuclear weapons may be the key to elimination of nuclear weapons and unexpected friends may be found in military leaders.
Alliances across generations should be created, that is why the work of WFUNA is important in encouraging youth to think constructively about these issues. The challenge is to put the problem of nuclear disarmament into the mainstream. History is on our side: peace is prevailing over violence. New political figures of promise are coming to the forefront while leaders in most countries are feeling the need to be more responsive.
Mr. Berg asked “Will we have the imagination and the courage to think about a future where inter- state military adventures are a thing of the past, where multilateral security replaces national militaries?“.
The discussion focused on the role of nuclear states, in particular the USA and Russia. Participants agreed that governments of these two countries have difficulties in trusting each other, complicating negotiations regarding nuclear disarmament.
It was noted that both the USA and Russia are fighting against terrorism, and a large majority of experts agree that nuclear weapons are not the solution to such threats. Therefore these two countries should collaborate to establish a common programme, which would include a reduction of nuclear warheads.
The relative inefficiency of multilateral negotiations during the last decade, suggested that there is an urgent need for change in leadership, beginning with the US, as it has been the only country that has ever used nuclear weapons.
Panel Discussion 1: Time for a Renaissance of Disarmament at the UN?
Conversation with Ambassadors
Kerstin Vignard, Project and Publications Manager UNIDIR
Ms. Vignard described the pioneer atmosphere around the CTBT discussions in 1995 when she arrived in Geneva. This euphoria soon vanished. “Today the public is conditioned to think about the nuclear threat in terms of the threat of nuclear weapons in the wrong hands, rather than the threat of nuclear armament–any nuclear weapon–to all humanity.” She then presented a demonstration by dropping one single popcorn into a bowl, representing the combined firepower of all weapons used in the Second World War. To illustrate today’s firepower of nuclear weapons, Vignard dropped 2,225 popcorns into the same bowl.
H.E. Mr. Masood Khan, Ambassador of Pakistan
Ambassador Khan confirmed the need of a renaissance of nuclear disarmament, but stated that the idealism “must be accompanied by a realistic approach.” The P5, (USA, Russia, UK, France, and China) and especially the United States, have a critical role to play in nuclear disarmament. Khan hoped for change in the Conference on Disarmament in 2009, when the "future policy direction of the USA will be known." Khan replied to a student question on trust-building measures between India and Pakistan, stating that room for improvement exists, and that “both parties were not there yet” due to unresolved issues. He noted that "complete disarmament is an objective, but it is not on the table for negotiation." Still, Khan inspired students in saying, "You are the young generation, speak in future terms, be bold and be outlandish."
H.E. Mr. Marius Grinius, Ambassador of Canada
Ambassador Grinius spoke on the definition of the word "renaissance," tracing disarmament efforts back to the 1920s and 30s at the League of Nations, when a lot of the same language that is used today had already been invented. He identified new advocates for disarmament, such as former US Secretary of State George P. Shultz or UK Foreign Secretary Beckett. Amb. Grinius underlined the importance of forging common positions with a humanitarian approach. He agreed that disarmament is not just about reducing military capacity, but also increasing humanitarian interventions.
H.E. Mr. Hans Dahlgren, Ambassador of Sweden
Ambassador Dahlgren stressed the principle of universality. He was concerned that today "more fingers are on the trigger than ever before" and the CD has not moved on. He challenged the classic view that nuclear weapons provide for a state's security by pointing out states like Sweden who chose to stay nuclear weapon-free even after they had acquired the potential capacity to produce the weapons. Sweden did not go nuclear, as its security is higher without nuclear weapons. Amb. Dahlgren stated that there are more than enough experts in arms control and that what we need are poets and psychologists. Poets for vision, psychologists to understand why Person A does not trust Person B, and why they are both standing with bats –nuclear weapons — in their hands. The nuclear disarmament is about how to trust people and countries in terms of their national self-interest.
Ms. Ahlam Al-Gailani, Chargé d’Affaires at the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Iraq
Ms. Al-Gailani enriched the discussion with her background in Human Rights and Humanitarian issues. She spoke on the militarization of Iraqi society. Half the state budget is spent on the military, which wastes resources and does not help protect the people or the state. Ms. Al-Gailani declared that the current major concerns for Iraq are conventional weapons and spoke on the need for a UN Resolution on the arms industry. Regarding the position on the Iranian nuclear programme, she mentioned that the real danger comes from non-NPT nuclear weapon states.
Tuesday 15 July 2008
A Nuclear Weapons-Free World: Perspectives of Parliamentarians
Mr. Alyn Ware, International Coordinator of the Parliamentarians for Nuclear Non- proliferation and Disarmament (PNND)
Mr. Ware presented the Model Nuclear Weapons Convention (2007), a document that addresses the legal, technical and political elements of achieving and maintaining a nuclear weapons-free world. Abolition 2000 is another initiative, created in conjunction with the Nuclear Weapons Convention. Mr. Ware also spoke on Mayors for Peace, which counts 2,200 cities in 107 countries and regions as members. It launched an emergency campaign calling on countries to develop a road-plan for nuclear disarmament.
Mr. Ware stated that the diplomatic community and parliamentarians are key players in nuclear disarmament, for it is they who negotiate and legislate basic rules, build and monitor entire mechanisms for a nuclear weapons-free world. PNND has over 500 members from sixty countries and is an international forum sharing resources and information to develop cooperative strategies for nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament issues.
The problem of nuclear disarmament, however, concerns not only those who govern but the whole of civil society. For example, parliamentarians and civil society in Norway have convinced the multi-billion dollar Norwegian Pension Fund to divest from corporations involved in the manufacturing of nuclear weapons.
Mr. Ware stressed that younger generations have the power to be “movers and shapers” for nuclear disarmament. The Youth Peace Actions, a website created by youth for youth, and the International Law Campaign Peace Wall in Nagasaki are some examples of projects that promote increased awareness among young people of the need for peace in today’s world. Peace cities have been established by youth in several countries in order to promote human rights and the elimination of violence.
The students asked what incentives parliamentarians had to participate in the Nuclear Weapons Convention. Mr. Ware explained that joining the Convention is attractive for governments, because they can realize security in a new framework. They do not need to rely on the military, which requires high investments. Precious financial resources can become available for governments to spend on other, more valuable, programs.
A student asked if there was a detailed guideline towards the Nuclear Weapons Convention. Mr. Ware pointed out that this is a Model Convention. It means that governments are not compelled to sign it when they start to negotiate. The difficulty is to convince parliamentarians to start the negotiations.
A similar action is the project leading to a Renewable Energy Agency. This is an international project towards a nuclear weapons-free world. The German government has already assembled fifty countries. With this agency, it will be possible to assist states in the development of renewable energy, so they do not feel they need to go for nuclear energy.
Panel Discussion 2: Role of the media in investigating and interpreting the state of nuclear war preparations in the world
Mr. Philip Knightley, author and investigative journalist
Mr. Knightley stated that reporting on nuclear affairs is too often riddled with misinformation, disinformation, propaganda, and fear-mongering because political considerations influence assessments on nuclear threats. He cautioned the students to always ask themselves about hidden agendas and interests when reading a piece of information.
He then raised a few examples of careless security procedures, and the passing of atomic secrets. Building on the story of the Israeli nuclear scientist and whistle blower Mordechai Vanunu, Mr. Knightley questioned Israel’s ambiguity towards nuclear weapons and accused the media of showing a lack of sympathy towards whistle blowers. The Israeli and Pakistani efforts at acquiring and building atomic bombs were linked to the CIA’s lack of interest in these cases of proliferation. Mr. Knightley went on to uncover strategies used by the American and British governments before the Iraq invasion, and surrounding the more recent cases of North Korea, Syria and Iran.
To conclude, Mr. Knightley gave the students advice in dealing with the media. He stressed the importance "to understand the nature of the beast: bad news is better than good news, people prefer to read about something terrible happening.”
A student reported on an initiative to create an international group of independent journalists who would investigate different media releases and sanction negative propaganda and hate speech. Mr Knightley talked about peace journalism, and its code of ethics, which requires journalists to think about the effects of their writing.
The students exchanged ideas and questions about press freedom in different countries, and whether the internet would increase the spread of misinformation. Mr. Knightley noted that the presumption of free press still does not stop governments from manipulating the media, or from putting a particular government spin on the press, which is also called “perception management.” He considered that adding a new source of information is good in principle, but that control is difficult on the Internet. Militaries are only now realizing that they are being used as propaganda machines by Jihadists.
Panel Discussion 3: Civil Society Approaches towards a Nuclear Weapons-Free World
Ms. Susi Snyder, Secretary General of the Women’s International League for Peace
(WILPF) and Freedom
Ms. Snyder noted that there are very few people who follow the Conference of Disarmament in depth. “Reaching Critical Will,” a project of WILPF, provides reports on all of the public CD sessions with the aim of keeping people informed.
The General Assembly’s work on disarmament is also important. Although resolutions adopted are not legally binding, they contribute to establishing “customs, standards, and guidelines for appropriate behaviour.” The general public has the right to participate in the debates (e.g. by getting in contact with governmental representatives at the GA and urging that they vote in a particular way).
Involvement of youth is also very important and meetings such as these are probably the most efficient ways for students to understand the “challenges inherent in negotiating for a nuclear weapons-free world.”
Mr. Colin Archer, Secretary-General of the International Peace Bureau
Mr. Archer provided an overview of the disarmament movement since the end of World War II. Scientists were among the first to react against nuclear weapons during the first decade (1948-1958), although some had participated in their creation. The following decade (1958-1968), was probably the most dangerous in modern history. As the situation between the USA and the Soviet Union became increasingly serious, citizens of both countries began mobilizing themselves. Governments took action as well, establishing the first nuclear weapons-free zones.
During 1968-1978, tremendous protests took place, and at the same time, the issue of nuclear weapons was absorbed into a much broader agenda, with the idea that society as a whole needed to be transformed. The beginning of the 1990s marked the end of the Cold War, the disposal of nuclear weapons by South Africa and the abandonment of nuclear programmes by some of the former states from the Soviet Union. The 1995 NPT Review Conference made permanent the most important treaty on nuclear disarmament.
The last decade started with an unstable world order, as both India and Pakistan became nuclear powers. Today, the lack of a real political will to achieve nuclear disarmament makes mobilization by civil society crucial, and young people should take a central role in this action.
In the course of a discussion about whether there was a place for mass movements in today’s world, the panelists noted that the largest demonstration in history took place on 15 February
2003, when 110 million people around the world assembled to oppose the US attack on Iraq. Ms. Snyder added that demonstrations happen almost everyday, but the media does not report them.
In response to questions about how to convince people in developing countries to mobilize against nuclear weapons, when they have other much more urgent concerns, such as hunger, corruption or poverty, Ms. Snyder pointed out that the financial resources spent today on nuclear weapons could be used to respond to these problems
Towards the 2010 NPT Review Conference - Guided Interactive Dialogue
Tim Caughley, Director of ODA in Geneva
Mr. Caughley explained the procedure of the NPT review cycle. The last preparatory committee is scheduled for May 2009 and will ideally produce recommendations that provide the focus of the 2010 NPT Review Conference in New York.
There are three major issues relating to the NPT and nuclear disarmament, especially in regards to the value of the NPT. While the NPT has often been described as a cornerstone of disarmament and international security, there are doubts as to the real determination of the parties to the NPT to strengthen the treaty.
While NPT Review Conference outcomes have no legal impact. However the political and moral value of a consensus outcome needs to be regarded as especially high, given that all States agree to it. However, the practice is different. While the NPT contains three essential pillars (nuclear disarmament, non-proliferation, and the peaceful use of nuclear energy) States have significantly moved away from the undertaking since 2000. Nuclear weapon states voiced concerns on suspected proliferation activities of North Korea and of Iran. Non-nuclear states on the other hand fear that the issue of proliferation might be used to distract from the lack of concerted action on the issue of nuclear disarmament. Given the destructive force of one single nuclear weapon, it is questionable whether a high number of nuclear weapons is necessary for security concerns. While nuclear weapon states are reducing the number of their nuclear arsenal, some practical questions remain, such as the cost of destroying nuclear weapons and the sheer time it takes to destroy them.
In response to a question on compliance with the NPT, Mr. Caughley noted that nuclear weapons states were conscious of their obligations towards the NPT, and these are generally fulfilled. However, it is very difficult to determine whether their action is sufficient or not. The case of Iran, however, clearly shows how difficult it is to say whether a country is acting according to the NPT or not.
One of the students was concerned with the representation of people suffering from effects of nuclear weapons in forums dealing with nuclear disarmament. Mr. Caughley agreed that very little is done to give access to representatives of such groups to discussions on nuclear disarmament. He nonetheless pointed out a slight improvement for both the NPT Preparatory Committee and the Review Conference, in which participation is now possible for various groups from civil society.
Wednesday 16 July 2008
Joint-Session: The Human Right to Peace: In Search of a Rights Based Approach to a Nuclear Weapons-Free World
A joint session of the SNWFW Conference and the annual Human Rights Seminar, was chaired by Ms. Pera Wells, Secretary General of WFUNA. The panel was composed of Dr. Carlos Vilan Duran, President of the Spanish Society for International Human Rights Law (SSIHRL); Professor Alfred De Zayas of the Geneva School of International Relations and Diplomacy; Mr. Tsutomu Kono, Political Affairs Officer of ODA; and Mr. David Fernandez of SSIHRL.
Ms. Pera Wells, Secretary General of WFUNA
In the last sixty years, more progress has been made at the UN in advancing the discourse on human rights than on nuclear disarmament. The aim of this session was to explore the extent to which the strategies and values underlying the promotion of human rights were relevant to the cause of freeing the world of nuclear weapons.
Dr. Carlos Vilan Duran, President, Spanish Society for International Human Rights Law
The Luarca Declaration on the Human Right to Peace intends to bring a holistic vision of peace, one that includes the absence of war, as well as physical, and structural violence. The declaration takes into consideration the twofold nature of the human right to peace, which contains both collective and individual elements. It illustrates the interrelatedness of human rights: the right to development, to disarmament and to a healthy environment, all contained in the human right to peace.
The declaration is the result of collaboration among a group of experts and civil society actors worldwide. The drafters hope to present the declaration at a world conference of civil society in Geneva in 2010 with an aim to submit a final draft to the Human Rights Council (HRC).
Professor Alfred De Zayas, Geneva School of International Relations and Diplomacy
The hierarchy of human rights places the right to life as a prerequisite to all human rights. In the relationship between human rights and peace, the latter enables the right to life without which the enjoyment of other human rights is impossible.
The interdependence and interrelatedness of human rights has been widely accepted since the Vienna Conference on Human Rights of 1993. As a consequence, the categorization of human rights into different generations (first generation: civil and political rights; second generation: economic, social and cultural rights; and third generation: collective rights, such as the right to development) has become obsolete.
Art. 3 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Art. 6 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) prohibit the arbitrary deprivation of life as part of the right to life. War constitutes a far more serious violation of the right to life than individual killings.
Art. 20 of the ICCPR prohibits propaganda for war. Although some have argued that this is not compatible with Art. 19 ICCPR (freedom of expression), the General Comment on Art. 20 has clarified that there is no contradiction: the freedom of expression is linked to corresponding responsibilities, and it may not be used for purposes that violate or undermine the other stipulations of the ICCPR.
The world is locked into a war-logic, because it is, after all, a big industry. As long as many people are able to make money by waging war, there will always be wars.
Mr. Tsutomu Kono, Political Affairs Officer, Office of Disarmament Affairs
The relationship between human rights and peace is very close, although representatives within the disarmament community prioritize national security over human rights. But unless governments are held accountable to observe human rights, social stability, security, and public safety cannot be achieved. If a government does not guarantee human rights, the individual is more likely to use violence, and the danger for a civil war increases.
Confidence building and dialogue is crucial to de-link the power-driven perspective and the right to peace. Promoting better relationships among countries could decrease the need for nuclear weapons.
A right to disarmament is constructive, especially regarding small arms and light weapons. While nuclear weapons constitute a potential threat, approximately 700 million small arms and light weapons kill people every day. Still, small weapons are not even a topic in the Disarmament Committee. Since the question always comes to sovereignty, the right to disarmament has to be guaranteed by the government as a human right.
Mr. David Fernandez, Spanish Society for International Human Rights Law
There is a difference between the right to peace and a human right to peace. While there has been much action with regard to the right to peace (cf. Friendly Relations Declaration of 1970 and the Declaration on the Right to Peace of 1984), there exists no common definition of the human right to peace. The Luarca Declaration is an excellent instrument to do so.
Students for a Nuclear Weapons-Free World Brainstorming Session
The brainstorming session was moderated by Philip Urech, Disarmament Coordinator at WFUNA in New York. The objective of the session was to plan practical follow up steps to the Conference.
The group soon decided to form a network. Special attention was given to education and raising awareness through modern communication technology tools such as Facebook and other online forums. In addition, the network aimed at publishing its own works (articles, posters and videos), not only on the internet, but also through local and national media.
During the discussion, it became clear that the overall vision of this newly established network was clear: a nuclear weapons-free world. The group set for themselves three major missions: awareness, empowerment and engagement. Specific future goals were discussed. Students expressed the wish to educate not only fellow students, but also politicians on a national level, through e.g. mass movements such as flashmobs (mass events where people assemble in order to conduct a concerted action that attracts attention) and concerts for the cause of a nuclear-weapons free world. Capacity-building, especially in countries with weaker youth movements, was discussed as means of empowerment. In order to actively engage in their cause, the students planned to research and write articles, focusing in particular on the legal nature of disarmament questions. Additionally, they planned to lobby transnational corporations involved in nuclear trade as well as politicians for a world free of nuclear weapons.
Essays: Terhemba Aindigh, Nigeria, Afghanistan, Singapore
Diana Poxhoba, Russia Obaidullah Burhani, Rushaine Cunningham, Jamaica Pin-Quan Ng, Sven Sobrie, Belgium, Catriona Helen Elizabeth Standfield, Australia Alen Toplisek, Slovenia Nicolas Forero Villarreal, Colombia
Videos: Brian Chan, Malaysia,Emily Gleason, USA, Francesca Yabraian, USA
Posters: Wilson Chun Hei Chau, New Zealand, Django Merope-Synge, Australia, Wong Yeung Kong, China
German student film crew:
Jacob Romer, Nele Rudolf, Anna Warsberg and Yannik Hake
President: Hans Blix
Secretary-General: Pera Wells
Director of Programs, Geneva: Irene Martinetti
Communications Strategist: Fruzsina Molnar
Office manager, Geneva: Anne Sophie Julliard
Disarmament Coordinators: Marcus Wilson - New Zealand,
Philip Urech and Marc Caverzasio – Switzerland, Luke Sikorski - USA
A Special Thanks to our Official Partners:
Australian Youth Representative to the United Nations
AVAZZ.org The World in Action
Campaign for a Nuclear Weapons-Free World
Come Clean: WMD Awareness Programme European Youth Network for Nuclear Disarmament Global Action to Prevent War
Global Security Institute
IKV PAX Christi
International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons
International Peace Bureau
International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War
Kids for the Future
Lawyers Committee on Nuclear Disarmament
Middle Powers Initiative
NGO Committee on Disarmament, Peace, and Security
Nuclear Age Peace Foundation
Parliamentary Network for Nuclear Disarmament
Peace and Security Initiative Project for Nuclear Awareness Reaching Political Will
The Academic Council on the United Nations System
The Peace Foundation
UN CyberSchool Bus
United Nations University
Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom
World Academy of Art and Science