Trustees


Board of Trustees as of February 3, 2012

Saulo Casali Bahia

Saulo Casali Bahia is a federal judge in Brazil and member of the Faculty of Law of the Federal University of Bahia (UFBA) in Salvador. He has extensive experience with regard to constitutional law and public international law, and also with regard to public policies and Judicial Power.

A member of the Editorial Board of three journals, Saulo has published many books and articles and is a recipient of several awards. He joined the University of Florida (USA) as a visiting professor four times, and also in France (University of Tours).

He has been a Fellow of WAAS since 2006 and Trustee since 2012 intends to cooperate with the democratization of the Academy, working to raise the organization’s impact and visibility.

 


 

Robert J. Berg 

Robert J. Berg co-chairs the Fundraising Committee of the Academy's Board of Trustees. He has served as senior advisor to a number of parts of the UN, including the U.N. Economic Commission for Africa, the World Education Forum and the World Summit for Children. He proposed and co-authored the UN's first system-wide substantive initiative, the second being the Millennium Development Goals. Currently he is on a UN expert group concerned with the economic and governance implications of climate change. For many years he led the International Development Conference, the largest forum on international development issues in the US. Prior to that he was senior fellow at the Overseas Development Council, a think tank, and founded the evaluation work of USAID and the OECD/DAC. He serves on non-profit boards in higher education and international development, focusing on peace, community development and health. He currently works with graduate students from number of universities studying UN reform issues. Email: BobBerg500@cs.com


Zbigniew Bochniarz

Dr. Zbigniew Bochniarz became a WAAS Fellow in 2004 nominated by Harlan Cleveland. His interests within WAAS focus on environmental, economic and social problems and collaboration with South European Section. Zbigniew joined the Evans School faculty as a visiting professor in 2007. His teaching and research focus on sustainable development, comparative environmental policies, microeconomics of competition, and sustainability assessment of the transformation processes in post-communist countries. He is the author, co-author and/or editor of over 100 publications, including 15 books published on three continents in 12 languages. Since 2005, Zbigniew has been affiliate member of the Microeconomics of Competitiveness program at Harvard Business School. He has previously served as a visiting professor and senior fellow from 1986 to 2006 at the University of Minnesota’s Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs. He also served on the faculty at the Warsaw School of Economics from 1968 to 1985. He is the founder of the Center for Nations in Transition at the Humphrey Institute, which has initiated more than 20 projects raising $38 million and training 44,000 people in the countries of Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Ukraine. Zbigniew served as chairman of Environmental Partnership for Central Europe (Polish Chapter) Board of Trustees, honorary president of the ETP Foundation in Romania, and founding member of the ETP foundations in Bulgaria and Slovakia, the Center for Environmental Studies in Budapest, the Institute for Environmental Policy in Prague, the Institute for Sustainable Development in Warsaw, and the Energy Efficiency Foundation in Poland. Zbigniew holds a Ph.D. in Economics from the Warsaw School of Economics and honorary doctorate from the Miskolc University.


Jose Brunner

José Joaquin Brunner

Dr. José Joaquin Brunner is the UNESCO Chair Professor in Comparative Higher Education Policies at the Universidad Diego Portales in Chile. Prior to his present academic position he was Professor at the Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez and the Catholic University of Chile, and Director of the Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences (FLACSO) in Chile. He has served as a visiting scholar in the University of Leiden, Universidad de Los Andes (Colombia), and CINVESTAV’s Department of Educational Research (Mexico) amongst others. For most of his career, José has been a consultant in tertiary education policies for various international agencies, amongst them the OECD and the World Bank. In this capacity he has worked in 30 different countries in Latin America, Eastern Europe, Central Asia and Africa. He led the recent OECD review mission on higher education to Mexico (2006) and was a member of the review teams for Spain (2007) and Egypt (2009). From 1990 onwards he has served in various public bodies. He chaired Chile’s National Television Council and the Chilean Higher Education Accreditation Commission. From 1994 to 1998 he served as Minister Secretary General of the Chilean Government, a cabinet position. Presently he is a member of the Global Initiative for Quality Assurance Capacity (GIQAC) Steering Committee. José has published extensively on tertiary education systems and policies, culture and modernization in Latin America, and Chilean society. In 2004 he was invited to deliver the George F. Kneller Lecture at the Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES). In 1989 he was awarded the Lester Pearson Fellowship by the International Development Research Center (IDRC), Canada. José received his PhD degree in sociology from the University of Leiden, after completing his law studies at the Catholic University in Chile and two years of graduate training in sociology at Oxford University under the supervision of Dr. A. H. Halsey.


Ian Burton

Professor Ian Burton is Emeritus Professor in the Department of Geography at the University of Toronto, where he also directed the Environmental Institute (now School of the Environment). He is also Scientist Emeritus with Environment Canada and a Visiting Fellow with the International Institute for Environment and Development. He was previously Director of Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation   with the Meteorological Service of Canada, and Senior Policy Advisor during the Rio de Janeiro, UN Conference on Environment and Development in 1992.  He served as Vice-Chair and then Director of the International Federation of Institutes for Advanced Study (IFIAS) 1984-1992.

Ian now works primarily in the interface between science and policy at national and international levels, especially on climate change and environmental risks and “natural” disasters. He is currently working with the International Council for Science (ICSU) on the new programme Integrated Research on Disaster Risk. (irdrinternational.org). In this capacity he is co-chair of a Working Group on Forensic Investigations of Disasters. He has been a member of Canadian delegations to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Ian served as a Convening Lead Author for a Special Report on Extremes and as Lead Author for three Assessment Reports of IPCC. In this capacity he shared in the Nobel Peace Prize awarded to the IPCC and Al Gore in 2007.   He recently served as co-chair of the Expert Advisory Panel on Climate Change Adaptation to the Government of Ontario (2004-2009), and as co-chair of an Expert Advisory Group to the Pilot Programme on Climate Resilience at the World Bank.  Ian has also been working as a consultant to the UNFCCC Secretariat in Bonn, and to UNDP, UNEP, and a variety of Canadian government agencies including the International Development Research Centre. He also has worked with USAID and the UK and Danish agencies for international development.

Earlier in his career Ian worked with the Ford Foundation in India, Sudan and Nigeria. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 1984 and a Fellow of the World Academy of Art and Science in 1985, and has been a Trustee since 2011. He recently was awarded the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal and an honorary degree at the University of Waterloo.


Maria da Graça Carvalho

Professor Maria da Graça Carvalho is a member of the European Parliament in the PPE group since 14 July 2009 (member of the ITRE-Industry, Research and Energy Committee, substitute member of the Budgets Committee and member of the ACP-UE Joint Parliamentary Assembly). She was elected co- President of the Economic Development, Finance and Trade Committee of ACP-UE Joint Parliamentary Assembly. She has been Principal Adviser to President Barroso in the areas of Science, Higher Education, Innovation, Research Policy, Energy, Environment and Climate Change from 2006 to 2009. She is a Full Professor at Instituto Superior Técnico (Technical University of Lisbon) and has 30 years research experience in the areas of energy, environment and climate change. She was the founder of a research group of 50 people at Instituto Superior Técnico in the Energy, Environment and Climate Change fields. She has been Minister of Science and Higher Education of the XV Constitutional Government of Portugal and Minister of Science, Innovation and Higher Education of the XVI Constitutional Government, Director-General of GRICES-Office for International Relations in Science and Higher Education and Deputy President of the Portuguese Association of Engineers. She has been member of the Board of Directors and President of the Scientific Board of Instituto Superior Técnico. She is a member of 22 national and international scientific associations and fellow of AIAA-American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, of AAAS-American Association for the Advancement of Science, of the Portuguese Academy of Science. Maria has published 115 articles in international scientific journals and more then 300 articles in international books and proceedings of conferences. She has authored 2 books and is the editor of 14 books and special editions of international scientific journals.


Chandana Chakrabarti

Chandana Chakrabarti , presently Director, Sukriti, a consultancy organisation, was for a decade with the Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad , an internationally renowned basic research laboratory of the CSIR. She played a crucial role in the building of CCMB along with its founder Dr PM Bhargava. With over a 100 major articles published in well-known magazines, newspapers and books published in India and abroad, she wrote a weekly column for the Deccan Chronicle, Andhra Pradesh's largest circulating daily.

She has co-authored a book titled, “The Saga of Indian Science since Independence “In a Nutshell” published by Universities Press. As a social activist, she is the Convenor of The MARCH, a voluntary organisation based in Hyderabad, whose efforts have led to the setting up of a national system of accreditation of diagnostic laboratories to ensure quality and reliability, and also the national guidelines for accreditation of infertility clinics. Widely travelled in India and abroad as an invited participant and speaker at major international meetings, she represented India at the World Youth Leadership Summit held at the UN Headquarters in New York in 1995.


Emil Constantinescu

Dr. Emil Constantinescu, former President of Romania (1996-2000) and leader of the Romanian Democratic Convention (1992-1996), is currently the President of the Romanian Academic Forum, the Honorary President of the Bucharest University Senate and Professor at the Faculty of Geology at the same university. He graduated from the law school of the University of Bucharest and started his career as a geologist. Formerly he served as Rector of the University of Bucharest, President of the Romanian National Council of Rectors, member of the Steering Committee of the European University Association, and the International Association of University Chairmen. Emil is currently a member of the Board of the Institute for East-West Studies in New York, of the Balkan Political Club; co-chairman of World Justice Project and of several geological and mineralogical societies. He has delivered lectures at many universities worldwide, acting as Chairman and Key-Speaker at prestigious international congresses and conferences. He studied Law at the University of Bucharest, and obtained a PhD in Geology from the University of Bucharest, a Sc.D. from Duke University, USA, and honorary doctorates from universities in several other countries. A scientist, researcher, active politician and committed civil servant, Emil has published extensively on mineralogy as well as on political, economic and educational issues. He has been awarded numerous distinctions and awards.


 

Orio Giarini

Orio Giarini

Orio Giarini has been a Fellow of WAAS and a member of the Executive Committee of SEED since 2005 as well as founding Editor-in-Chief of Cadmus Journal, a cooperative venture between SEED and the Risk Institute, Geneva. He is a member of the Club of Rome and served on its Executive Committee (1982-86) and also founding Editor-in-Chief of European Papers for the New Welfare, a journal focusing on economic and social welfare issues related to aging. As an economist, his fundamental endeavor has been to understand economy as a basic human activity founded on technological and cultural developments. His years as director of the techno-economic division at the Battelle Institute in Geneva has provided him with invaluable insights. He has contributed to the organization of the first conference of the Club of Rome in Bern and had many opportunities to interact with great scientists such as Lew Kowarsky, Victor and his brother Walter Weisskopf, Karl Popper and others. He was founding Secretary General of Geneva Association (1973-2001), the world’s premier research center on economic issues related to risk and insurance, whose members include 90 CEOs of the world’s major insurance companies in their personal capacity. In parallel he taught a course at the University of Geneva on what has since become known as Service Economics benefitting from his professional experiences, and helping to formulate little by little a coherent view (and theory) of contemporary macro-economics. All this made it possible to publish 12 books, including four reports to the Club of Rome (prefaced by Aurelio Peccei and then Alexander King) and the major one, The Limits to Certainty prefaced by Ilya Prigogine. In 1975 he founded The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance (now published by Palgrave and edited by the Geneva Association).


  Bohdan Hawrylyshyn

Bohdan Hawrylyshyn previously served on the Academy’s Board of Trustees and was a candidate for President of WAAS in 2007. He is also a member of the Club of Rome, International Academy of Management, Foundation Jean Monnet pour l’Europe, and Forum Suisse de Politique Internationale. He is the chairman and co-founder of the International Management Institute (Geneva) since 1988, Foundation Vidrodgenia (Geneva) and the Bohdan Hawrylyshyn Charitable Foundation (Ukraine). Graduate of the University of Toronto (M.A.Sc. in Mechanical Engineering), he has a Ph.D. in Economics and Social Science (University of Geneva), as well as 5 honorary doctorates from Canadian and Ukrainian Universities.

Bohdan has occupied positions in research, engineering and management in Canada, worked as a Professor, and then Director of the International Management Institute. From 1960 to 1986 he taught Economic Growth, Management of International Operations, World Business Environment, Governance of Countries, and Geopolitics. He has chaired conferences, moderated seminars, lectured in over 70 countries, was an advisor on Governance of Countries, a consultant to multinationals (G.E., IBM, Unilever) and participated in Swiss governmental delegations to international conferences.

Since 1988, Bohdan has participated actively in Ukraine’s political, social and cultural life. He created and chaired the Council of Advisors to the Presidium of the Parliament of Ukraine from 1990-1998, the International Renaissance Foundation from 1991-1998, the International Center for Policy Studies, Kyiv, from 1994-2006. He was an advisor to the first President of Ukraine, three Prime-Ministers, and four Chairmen of the Parliament.

He is the author of four books: L’Education des Dirigeants – Aspects Methodologiques, 1977, Road Maps to the Future – Towards More Effective Societies, 1980 (also published in French, German, Spanish, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Ukrainian), Towards More Effective Societies - Road Maps to the Future, 2009 (also published in Ukrainian and Russian) and a book of memoires, A Ukrainian Wherever, 2011.


 

 

Garry Jacobs 

Garry Jacobs is an American-born consultant on business management and economic development with extensive international experience in USA, Western and Eastern Europe ,    and Asia. He is Managing Editor of Cadmus Journal and Vice-President of The Mother's Service Society, a social science research institute in Pondicherry, South India. Since 1972 he has bee n  engaged in research at MSS on economic and social development, management, psychology, and education. His work includes theoretical research on social development,  organiz ational theory and money as well as studies for the Indian Planning Commission’s task force on Vision 2020, the Prime Minister's Office and state governments. Since 1995 he is Executive Director, International Center for Peace & Development, (Napa, CA), the successor organization to the International Commission on Peace & Food (ICPF), which conducts research on  strategies to promote global peace and development. From 1989 to 1994, He was Member-Secretary of ICPF, convener of ICPF’s working groups on Employment and on Transition in Eastern Europe, coordinator of the ICPF research team that evolved a strategy to generate 100 million new jobs in India, and editor of the Commission's report to the UN entitled Uncommon Opportunities: Agenda for Peace and Equitable Development. Jacobs is also a management consultant and partner since 1987 in Mira International, a consulting firm providing management guidance to firms in a wide range of industries in the USA, Europe and India. His work includes assignments for small, medium and large corporations on strategies to elevate corporate values, accelerate growth, and improve profitability. He is co-author of two books on the process of corporate growth: The Vital Difference: Unleashing the Powers of Sustained Corporate Success, and The Vital Corporation: How American Companies Large and Small Double Profits in Two Years or Less.


Morley Lipsett

I became a Fellow of WAAS in 1997. A few years later, I and my daughter, Andrea Lipsett, helped to organize the historic Vancouver GA on ‘The Global Century’ at my home institution, Simon Fraser University, in Vancouver. WAAS executives’ work in organizing the event and Fellows’ enthusiastic participation enriched the assembly which had special programs to include participation of youth in the region.

I have a Bachelor’s degree from the University of Alberta, a Master’s from MIT and a PhD from the University of London (Imperial College). My early interests were in quantum optics and optical communication.

My career and interests have encompassed senior positions in industry, government and academia. Most recently, I have been Director of the Innovation Metrics and Policy Program at SFU’s Center for Policy Research on Science and Technology where my work focused on technology transfer, national systems of innovation, management of technology, and international co-operation in technological development. Previously, I was General Director in Canada’s Ministry of State for Science and Technology, responsible for science policy development and implementation. My current interests concern the future of aging, and in exploring what steps can be taken regionally and internationally to engage human aging as natural, positive, and replete with new opportunities.

My commitment is to encourage WAAS to harness the diverse thinking of its membership and that of the youth to inspire fresh ideas and actions for a positive global future. I believe that as we move on, recent Academy events will serve to bring new focus, energy, dignity and promise to WAAS for generations to come. Email:lipsett@sfu.ca


Winston NaganWinston Nagan

 Winston Nagan is a Professor of Law, University of Florida, Levin College of Law, Gainesville, Florida, Founding Director, Institute for Human Rights, Peace and Development and Fellow, Royal Society of the Arts. A member of the Editorial Board of Cadmus Journal, Winston Nagan is also the International Editorial Advisor for the Journal of Law and Politics. He served as Chairman of Amnesty International USA (1989-91) and as a member of the Board (1986-92). He also served as President of Policy Sciences Center, Yale Law School (1986-1991) and on numerous groups of international experts on issues related to human rights, biodiversity, indigenous rights, and traditional knowledge. Winston Nagan is an alumnus of the University of South Africa, where he did his B.A (Law), Brasenose college, Oxford, where he got an M.A (Juris), Duke School of Law where he did LL.M. and later Yale School of Law, where he obtained his Doctorate degree in law.

 


Roberto D. Peccei

Dr. Roberto D. Peccei is a Professor of Physics and Astronomy at UCLA, and a member of the Club of Rome. As a physicist his principal interests lie in the interface between particle physics and cosmology. As a member of the Club of Rome he is broadly interested in the kind of economics that needs to be developed to ensure a sustainable world. Roberto was born in Italy, completed his secondary school in Argentina, and came to the United States in 1958 to pursue his university studies in physics. He obtained a B.S. from MIT in 1962, and M.S. from NYU in 1964 and a Ph.D. from MIT in 1969. After a brief period of postdoctoral work at the University of Washington, he joined the faculty of Stanford University in 1971. In 1978, he returned to Europe as a staff member of the Max Planck Institute in Munich, Germany. He joined the Deutsches Elektron Synchrotron (DESY) Laboratory in Hamburg, Germany, as the Head of the Theoretical Group in 1984. He returned to the United States in 1989, joining the faculty of the Department of Physics at UCLA. Soon thereafter, he became Chair of the Department, a position he held until becoming Dean of the Division of Physical Sciences of the College of Letters and Sciences in 1994. For the last decade, he was Vice Chancellor for Research at UCLA, overseeing all research programs in the university. In July of 2010, he returned to the faculty. Roberto was the Schroedinger Professor at the University of Vienna in 1983, the Boris Jacobsohn Lecturer at the University of Washington in 1986, the Phi Beta Kappa Lecturer at UCLA and the Emilio Segre Professor at the University of Tel Aviv in 1992, and delivered the first Abdus Salam Memorial Lecture in Pakistan in 1997. He has served on numerous advisory boards both in Europe and the United States in the last 25 years. He is a member of the Executive Committee of the Club of Rome and is the President of the Fondazione Aurelio Peccei. He presently also serves as the Chair of the External Advisory Board of the Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe in Japan. He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society, the Institute of Physics in the United Kingdom, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the World Academy of Art and Science.


Herwig Schopper

Dr. Herwig Schopper is Chairman of Scientific Council of UNESCO International Basic Science Program since (2003) and Member of Board of Trustees of the Cyprus Institute and chairman of the Scientific Council (since 2002). He was President of SESAME Council (International Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory in Jordan for the Middle East) (1999-2008, now member), Member of Scientific Council of Joint Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia (1993 –2002), President of German Physical Society (1992-94), President of European Physical Society (1994-96). He was Director-General of the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN (1981-88), Chairman of the Association of German Research Centres (Helmholtz Association) (1977-79), Chairman of the Board of Directors, DESY, Hamburg (1973-80), Professor at the University Hamburg from 1973 until retirement in 1989. Presently he is Member of the German National Academy for Natural Sciences Leopoldina", Halle, DE; European Academy, London; Academia Scientiarium et Artium Europea, Salzburg, Austria. He is also Corresponding member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences, Munich; Honorary member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences; Fellow of the Institute of Physics, London; Fellow of the American Physical Society and Member of the Academy of Sciences, Lisbon. Herwig was the recipient of Niels Bohr Gold Medal of UNESCO-Denmark, UNESCO Albert Einstein Gold Medal in 2004, and several other distinguished awards. He has published more than 200 papers in refereed journals on Optics, Nuclear Physics, Elementary Particle Physics, Detector Development. Science and society, Science and Religion. Herwig holds a Diploma in Physics (1949) and Doctorate from Hamburg University (1951).

 


 

Ivo Slaus

Ivo Slaus is a nuclear and particle physicist and director of South East European Division of the Academy (SEED). He is also a member of the international advisory council of the Club of Rome and former president of the Croatian Association of the Club of Rome; a member of the Pugwash Council and former president of Croatian Pugwash; a founding Fellow of Academia Europaea; a member of the managing board of the Balkan Political Club; Chairman, International Network of Centres for Sustainable Development; founder and former Executive Committee member of the European Physical Society; Fellow World Innovation Foundation, and a former member of the Parliament of Croatia. Professor Slaus has held academic teaching posts at Rudjer Boškovic Institute, Croatia, UCLA, Georgetown University, Duke University, and the International postgraduate school Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (since 2003). He has received national awards for research in 1962 and in 1969.

 


Raoul Weiler

Raoul Weiler: A native of Belgium, with an academic background of Bio-Engineering in Chemistry from the University of Leuven (KUL), Belgium and a Doctor degree. Dr. Raoul Weiler was post-doctoral Fellow in the USA at two universities, in North Carolina at Chapel Hill and in Washington DC at the Catholic University of America. His industrial career started in a chemical multinational in Germany in the Department of Applied Physics as a researcher and process engineer and ended, in Belgium, as ICT manager. Thereafter, he held teaching positions at different universities in Belgium, mainly at the University of Leuven (1997-2005), about the Socio-ethical Aspects of Technology, especially on the problem of sustainability, ethics and deontology for engineers. He is the author, of some forty scientific publications and patents, editor of six proceedings of symposia and conferences, among them the Proceedings of the World Conference on Filtration, 1986. He contributed as co-author and editor to twelve books, among them, Ethics of the Kyoto Protocol, 2005 and Proceedings of the joint World Conference of the Club of Rome and UNESCO, 2005. Raoul was president-elect of the Royal Society of Flemish Engineers (11,000 members), and Founder-President of the EU-Chapter of the Club of Rome (CoR-EU) in Brussels and member of the Executive Committee of the Club of Rome International. He was Vice-President of the European Academy for Sciences and Arts, Salzburg. He participated in two UN World Summits: on Sustainable Development WSSD in Johannesburg, 2002, and in the Information Society WSIS in Geneva, 2003 and Tunis, 2005. In 2005 he participated in the World Social Forum WSF, Porto Alegre in Brazil and co-organized with UNESCO a World Conference on ICT for Capacity Building, in Paris. He was a member of the Wikimedia Advisory Board and participated in three Wikimania events, where he presented a project on the inclusion of objects of Ethnographic Museums in Wikicommons. Today he is member of the Comité de Pilotage, Division de l'éthique des sciences et des technologies, of UNESCO.


Alberto Zucconi

Alberto Zucconi, a clinical psychologist is a former student and collaborator of the late Dr. Carl Rogers, one of the founding fathers of Humanistic Psychology and originator of the Client-Centred Therapy and the Person Centred Approach, a scientifically formulated paradigm that has impacted the fields of psychology, education and management. Dr. Zucconi is the president of the Person-Centred Approach Institute (IACP), a non-profit international organization, co-founded with Carl Rogers and Charles Devonshire and dedicated to research in human behaviour, the promotion of health and the training of professionals. IACP is a World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre for research, training and consulting in Health Promotion at the workplace in Italy and the Host Institution for the SOLVE programs of the International Labour Office (ILO) in Italy. Dr. Zucconi was a faculty member of the Western Behavioural Science Institute (WBSI) in La Jolla, CA., and is a fellow of the International Leadership Forum (ILF), an online global think thank, a senior staff member of the Carl Rogers’ Peace Institute that has organized with the United Nations University for Peace cross-cultural communication and conflict resolution meetings with heads of state and diplomats. Dr. Zucconi has been working internationally for 35 years as a trainer, lecturer and consultant for public and private organizations and is currently teaching Client Centred Therapy and the Person Centred Approach, at the post graduate level at the University of Siena (Italy), faculty of medicine. He has authored several articles and books focused on psychology, psychotherapy and health promotion and designed and directed various research projects.